Agricultural Entomologys Important Study Point
Agricultural Entomologys Important Study Point
Pupa:-Pupa is the resting and inactive stage in all holometabolous insects.
There are three main types of pupae.
1.Obtect:- Example- Moth pupa.
Obtect is also divided into two part-
i.Chrysalis:- It is the naked obtect pupa of Butterfly.
- The pupa is attached to the substratum by hooks present at the terminal end of the abdomen called Cremaster.
- The middle part of the chrysalis is attached to the substratum by two strong silken threads called Gridle.
ii.Tumbler:- Pupa of Mosquito is called tumbler.
- It is comma shaped with rudimentary appendages.
- The pupa is very active.
2.Exarate:- Example- Pupa of Rhinocerous beetle.
3.Coarctate:- The pupal case is barrel shaped.
- The hardened dark brown pupal case is called puparium.
- Example- Fly pupa.
Pupal Protection:- To get protection against adverse conditions and natural enemies, the pupa is enclosed in a protective cover called cocoon. Based on the nature and materials used for preparation of cocoons, there are several types:
|Types of cocoon||Materials used||Example|
|Earthern cocoon||Soil + saliva||Gram pod borer|
|Hairy cocoon||Body hairs||Wolly bear|
|Frassy cocoon||Frass + saliva||Coconut black headed caterpillar|
|Fibrous cocoon||Fibres||Red palm weevil|
|Puparium||Hardened last larval skin||House fly|
Structure and Functions of Digestive System
The alimentary canal of insects is a long, muscular, and tubular structure extending from mouth to anus. It is differentiated into three regions viz., Foregut, Midgut and Hindgut.
- Foregut is Ectodermal in origin.
- Internal cuticular lining is present.
- Terminal mouth parts leads into a Preoralcavity.
- Preoralcavity between epipharynx and hypopharynx is called as Cibarium.
- Preoralcavity between hypopharynx and salivary duct is called Salivarium.
Foregut include some parts:-
- Behind the mouth a well musculated organ called Pharynx.
- Pharynx acts as a sucking pump in sap Feeders.
ii.Oesophagous:- It is a narrow tube which conducts food into crop.
- It is acting as food reservoir.
- In Bees crop is called as Honey Stomach where nectar conversion occurs.
iv.Proventriculus or Gizzard:-
- It is the posterior part of foregut and is musculated.
- It is found in Solid feeders and absent in Fluid feeders or Sap feeders.
The internal cuticle of gizzard is variously modified as follows.
|Teeth like||Cockroach||To grind and strain food.|
|Plate like||Honey bee||To separate pollen grains from nectar|
|Spine like||flea||To break the blood corpuscles|
Note:- Food flow from foregut to midgut is regulated through Cardiac valve or Oesophageal valve.
2.Midgut /Stomach /Ventriculus:-
- Midgut is Endodermal in origin.
- It is also called as mesentron.
- This part contains no cuticular lining.
Midgut is made up of three types of epithelial cells-
- Secretory cells (Columnar cells)
- Goblet cells (aged secretory cells),
- Regenerative cells which replaces secretory cells.
Some important features of midgut
- It is the internal lining of midgut, secreted by anterior or entire layer of midgut epithelial cells.
- It is present in Solid feeders and absent in Sap feeders.
- This layer is semipermeable in nature to digestive juices and digestion products.
Functions of Peritrophic membrane-
- Lubricate and facilitate food movement
- Envelops the food and protects the Midgut Epithelial Cells against harder food particles.
- It is also known as Enteric caecae or Hepatic caecae.
- Finger like outgrowths found in anterior or posterior ends of midgut.
- It is also known as Proctodeal valve
- Midgut opens into hindgut through pyloric valve, which regulate food flow.
- In certain immature stages of insects midgut is not connected to hindgut till pupation. Such as- Honey bee grub
- This is useful to short circuit excess water found in liquid food in homopteran insects.
- This process avoids dilution of digestive enzymes and concentrates food for efficient digestion.
- It is Also helps in osmoregulation by preventing dilution of haemolymph.
- Hindgut is Ectodermal in origin.
- Internal cuticular lining is present, which is permeable to salts, ions, aminoacids and water.
- The main functions of hindgut are the absorption of water, salt and other useful substances from the faeces and urine.
Hindgut is differentiated into three regions:-
- Colon and
In the larva of Scarabids and Termites, illeum is pouch like for housing symbionts and acts as fermentation chamber. Rectum contains rectal pads helping in dehydration of faeces and it opens out through anus.
- In Cockroach a pair of labial glands acts as salivary gland.
- In Caterpillars mandibular glands are modified to secrete saliva, where the salivary glands are modified for Silk production.
|Wood boring Cerambycid grub and Termites||Cellulase||Cellulose|
|Meat eating maggots:-||Collagenase||Collagen & Elastin|
Structure & Functions of Circulatory System
- Open circulatory system is found in Insect.
- The main pump is the pulsatile dorsal vessel.
- The anterior part of pulsatile dorsal vessel may be called Aorta
- The posterior part of pulsatile dorsal vessel may be called the Heart.
Haemolymph & Its Functions
- It is often clear and Colourless but may be variously pigmented or rarely red due to haemoglobin in the immature stages of few aquatic and endoparasitic flies (e.g., Chironomid larva).
- Haemolymph performs the function of both Blood and lymph.
- It is not involved in Gas transporting function (respiration).
- Haemolymph contains a fluid portion called plasma and cellular fractions called Haemocytes.
- pH is usually acidic (6.7) of plasma.
Structure And Functions Of Excretory System
- The removal of waste products of metabolism, especially nitrogenous compounds from the body of insects is known as Excretion.
- The excretion process helps the insect to maintain salt water balance and thereby physiological homeostasis.
Some Important Excretory organs-
- Malpighian tubules are the major organ of excretion.
- Predominantly involved in regulation of salt, water and nitrogenous waste excretion.
- Malpighian tubules was discovered by Marcello Malpighi.
- Malpighian tubules are outgrowths of the alimentary canal
|Insect Example||Number of MT|
|Moths and Butterflies||6|
Note:- Primitive number of Malpighian tubules (MT) is generally six.
3. Fat bodies
- Terrestrial insects excrete waste products as Uric acid or certain of its salts called Urates.
- This type of excretion is known as Uricotelism.
- In aquatic insects Ammonia is the excretory product.
- This type of excretion is known as Ammonotelism.
- The distal ends of the Malpighian tubules are held in contact with the rectal wall by the Perinephric membrane
- Example- Adult Coleptera, larval Lepidoptera and larval symphyta.
- The excretory waste materials are retained within the body in different sites.
- Uric acid is stored as urates in the cells of fat body. Example- American cockroach.
- Uric acid is stored in the body wall, giving white colour, Example- Red cotton bug.
- Uric acid is stored in the wing scales giving white colour. Example- Pierid butterflies.
Structure & Functions Of Respiratory System
- Similar to aerobic animals, insects must obtain oxygen from their environment and eliminate carbon dioxide respired by their cells.
- Gas exchange occurs by means of internal air-filled Tracheae.
- The finest branches called Tracheloe.
- Air usually enters into the tracheae by Spiracle openings positioned laterally on the body.
- Each spiracle is set in a sclerotized cuticular plate called a Peritreme.
- The ringed appearance of the tracheae is due to the spiral ridges called Taenidia.
- Tracheoles are less than 1 cm in diamete
|Holopneustic||Grasshopper||10 pairs, 2 in thorax and 8 in abdomen|
|Hemipneustic||—||Out of 10 pairs, one or two non functional|
|Peripneustic||Caterpillar||9 pairs – 1 in thorax 8 in abdomen.|
|Amphipneustic||Maggot||2 pairs – One anterior, one posterior|
|Propneustic||Puparium||1 pair -anterior pair|
|Metapneustic||Wriggler||1 pair – posterior pair|
10 pairs – 7 functional (1 thorax + 6 abdominal), 3 non functional
|Apneustic||Naiad of may fly.||All spiracles closed, closed tracheal system|
- The basic component in the nervous system is the Nerve cell or Neuron.
Neurones are of following types based on structure and function:-
|Monopolar||Neurone with a single axon|
|Bipolar||Neurone with a proximal axon and a long distal dendrite|
|Multipolar||Neurone with a proximal axon and many distal dendrites.|
|Sensory neurone||It conducts impulse from sense organs to cennervoussystem(CNS).|
|Motor neurones||It conducts impulse from CNS to effector organs|
|Inter neurones (association neurone)||It interlinks sensory and motor neurones.|
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